The last decades, climate changes increase in temperature and precipitations have caused impacts on humans and natural ecosystems all over the globe (see illustration). The effects of extreme events such as heat waves, droughts, floods, hurricanes and fires shows that the vulnerability and exposure to climate changes might be greater for the specific ecosystems (e.g. desert areas, islands). Human populations are also affected significantly as the effects of climate change have caused substantial economic and social problems with the greatest of all mental and physical human health disorders. In all countries regardless of the levels of development, those health consequences combine with a significant lack of knowledge and state of readiness to the current climate variability in certain areas. The following figure shows the most important consequences of extreme conditions and climate enumeration of facts that have been happening in global level.
The fifth Intergovernmental Panel Assessment Report on Climate Change IPCC defines the term “impacts” or “consequences” as the effect on natural ecosystem and humans from the changes in climate. The consequences generally refer to the effects and changes in life, lifestyle, health, ecosystems, economies, societies, cultures, services and infrastructure due to the interaction of climate changes. In addition, the impacts determine the vulnerability of exposed society or ecosystem to climate changes and mentioned to changes in geophysical systems.